Plum pox (PPV) - Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus
Effective: March 13, 2017
Taxonomic Position: Unassigned : Potyviridae
Pest Type: Viruses
This pest is a member of the following surveys: Stone Fruit
These Approved Methods are appropriate for: 2025, 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015
Pest Information
Hosts Identified in the CAPS Host Matrix:
Pest is vectored by:

Approved Method(s)
Method Detail NAPIS Survey Method
Tissue Sample Follow National PPV Survey Plan. Also see Sampling PPV document below. 3011 - General Tissue Sample
Method Notes:

Survey Recommendations
The following are recommendations for executing the survey using the approved methods for pest surveillance. The recommendations are developed through literature review and consultation with subject matter experts.
Key Diagnostic or Identification

Approved Method(s)
Mistaken Identities:
  1. Boscia, D., Zeramdini, H., Cambra, M., Potere, O., Gorris, M.T., Myrta, A., Di Terlizzi, B., and Savino, V. 1997. Production of and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific to the M serotype of Plum pox potyvirus. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 103: 477-480.
  2. Bousalem, M., Candresse, T., Quiot-Douine, L., and Quiot, J. B. 1994. Comparison of three methods for assessing Plum pox virus variability: further evidence for the existence of two major groups of isolates. J. Phytopathol. 142:163-172.
  3. Byzova, N.A., Safenkova, I.V., Chirkov, S.N., Avdienko, V.G., Guseva, A.N., Mitrofanova, I.V., Zherdev, A.V., Dzantiev, B.B., and Atabekov, J.G. 2010. Interaction of Plum pox virus with specific colloidal gold-labeled antibodies and development of immunochromatographic assay of the virus. Biochemistry (Moscow) 75(11): 1393-1403.
  4. Cambra, M., Asensio, M., Gorris, M.T., Perez, E., Camarasa, E., Garcia, J.A., Moya, J.J., Lopez-Aballa, D., Vela, C., and Sanz, A. 1994. Detection of Plum pox potyvirus using monoclonal antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins. EPPO Bull. 24: 569-577.
  5. Candresse, T., Cambra, M., Dallot, S., Lanneau, M., Asensio, M., Gorris, M.T., Revers, F., Macquaire, G., Olmos, A, Boscia, D., Quiot, J. B., and Dunez, J. 1998. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction assays for the typing of isolates belonging to the D and M serotypes of Plum pox potyvirus. Phytopathology 88: 198-204.
  6. Candresse, T., Macquaire, G., Lanne, M., Bousalem, M, Quiot-Douine, L., Quiot, J.B., and Dunez, J. 1995. Analysis of Plum pox virus variability and development of strain-specific assays. Acta Horticulturae 386: 357-369.
  7. Candresse, T., Macquaire, G., Lanneau, M., Bousalem, M., Wetzel, T., Quiot-Douine, L., Quiot, J. B., and Dunez, J. 1994. Detection of Plum pox potyvirus and analysis of its molecular variability using immunocapture-PCR. EPPO Bull. 24:585-594.
  8. Clark, M.F., and Adams, A.N. 1977. Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 34: 475-483.
  9. Crescenzi, A., d'Aquino, L., Nuzzaci, M., Ostuni, A., Bavoso, A., Comes, S., De Stradis, A., and Piazzola, P. 1997. Production of strain specific antibodies against a synthetic polypeptide corresponding to the N-terminal region of the Plum pox potyvirus coat protein. Journal of Virological Methods 69: 181-189.
  10. Faggioli, F., Pasquini, G., and Barba, M. 1998. Comparison of different methods of RNA isolation for Plum pox virus detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Acta Virologica 42: 219-221.
  11. Glasa, M., Paunovic, S., Jevremovic, D., Myrta, A., Pttnerova, S., and Candresse, T. 2005. Analysis of recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from Serbia confirms genetic homogeneity and supports a regional origin of the PPV-Rec subgroup. Arch. Virol. 150: 2051-2060.
  12. Hadidi, A., and Levy, L. 1994. Accurate identification of Plum pox poytvirus and its differentiation from Asian Prunus latent potyvirus in Prunus germplasm. EPPO Bulletin 24: 633-643.
  13. Hammond, J., Puhringer, da Camara Machado, A., and Laimer da Camara Machado, M. 1998. A broad-spectrum PCR assay combine with RFLP analysis for detection and differentiation of Plum pox virus isolates. Acta Horticulturae 472: 483-490.
  14. Hughes, G., Gottwald, T.R., and Levy, L. 2002. The use of hierarchical sampling in the surveillance program for Plum pox virus incidence in the United States. Plant Dis. 86:259-263.
  15. Jarosova, J., and Kundu, J.K. 2010. Simultaneous detection of stone fruit tree viruses by one-step multiplex RT-PCR. Scientia Horticulturae 125: 68-72.
  16. Levy, L., and Hadidi, A. 1994. A simple and rapid method for processing tissue infected with Plum pox potyvirus for use with specific 3' non-coding region RT-PCR assays. EPPO Bulletin 24: 595-604.
  17. Levy, L., Damsteegt, V., Scorza, R., and Kolber, M. 2000b. Plum pox potyvirus disease of stone fruit. APSnet Feature.
  18. Mumford, R.A., Perrin, A.S., and Danks, C. 2001. The diagnosis of Plum pox virus in the UK: from strain differentiation to on-site detection. Acta Horticulturae 550: 65-69.
  19. Myrta, A., Potere, O., Boscia, D., Candresse, T., Cambra, M., and Savino, V. 1998. Production of a monoclonal specific to the El Amar strain of Plum pox virus. Acta Virologica 42: 248-250.
  20. Myrta, A., Potere, O., Crescenzi, A., Nuzzaci, M., and Boscia, D. 2000. Properties of two monoclonal antibodies specific to the cherry strain of Plum pox virus. Journal of Plant Pathology 82(2): 95-101.
  21. Nemchinov, L., Hadidi, A., Kolber, M., and Nemeth, M. 1998. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Plum pox virus - cherry subgroup in Hungary. Acta Horticulturae 472: 503-510.
  22. Olmos, A., Angel Dasi, M. Candresse, T., and Cambra, M. 1996. Print-capture PCR: a simple and highly sensitive method for the detection of Plum pox virus (PPV) in plant tissues. Nucleic Acids Research 24(11): 2192-2193.
  23. Olmos, A., Bertolini, E., Capote, N., and Cambra, M. 2008. An evidence-based approach to Plum pox virus detection by DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR in dormant period. Virology: Research and Treatment I: I-3.
  24. Olmos, A., Bertolini, E., Gil, M., and Cambra, M. 2005. Real-time assay for quantitative detection of non-persistently transmitted Plum pox virus RNA targets in a single aphid. J. Virol. Methods 128: 151-155.
  25. Olmos, A., Cambra, M., Dasi, M.A., Candresse, T., Esteban, O., Gorris, M.T., and Asensio, M. 1997. Simultaneous detection and typing of Plum pox potyvirus (PPV) isolates by heminested-PCR and PCR-ELISA. Journal of Virological Methods 68: 127-137.
  26. Olmos, A., Cambra, M., Esteban, O., Teresa Gorris, M., and Terrada, E. 1999. New device and method for capture, reverse transcription and nested PCR in a single closed-tube. Nucleic Acids Research 27(6): 1564-1565.
  27. Papayiannis, L.C., Kyriakou, A.B., and Kapari-Isaia, T. 2007. Typing of Plum pox virus (PPV) strains in Cyprus. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 2: 29-30.
  28. Poggi Pollini, C., Giunchedi, L., and Bissani, R. 1997. Specific detection of D- and M- isolates of Plum pox virus by immunoenzymatic determination of PCR products. Journal of Virological Methods 67: 127-133.
  29. Sanchez-Navarro, J.A., Aparicio, F., Herranz, M.C., Myrta, A., Di Terlizzi, B., and Pallas, V. 2005. Simultaneous detection and identification of eight stone fruit viruses by one-step RT-PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology 11: 77-84.
  30. Schneider, W.L., Sherman, D.J., Stone, A.L., Damsteegt, V.D., and Frederick, R.D. 2004. Specific detection and quantification of Plum pox virus by real-time fluorescent reverse transcription-PCR. Journal of Virological Methods 120: 97-105.
  31. Staniulus, J., Stankiene, J., Sasnauskas, K., and Dargeviciute, A. 1998. First report of sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus in Lithuania. Plant Disease 82(12): 1405.
  32. Szemes, M., Kalman, M., Myrta, A., Boscia, D., Nemeth, M., Kolber, M., and Dorgai, L. 2001. Integrated RT-PCR/nested PCR diagnosis for differentiating between subgroups of Plum pox virus. Journal of Virological Methods 92: 165-175.
  33. USDA-APHIS. 2014. PPV National Survey Plan.
  34. Varga, A., and James, D. 2005. Detection and differentiation of Plum pox virus using real-time multiplex PCR with SYBR Green and melting curve analysis: a rapid method for strain typing. J. Virol. Methods 123: 213-220.
  35. Wetzel, T., Candresse, T., Macquaire, G., Ravelonandro, M., and Dunez, J. 1992. A highly sensitive immunocapture polymerase chain reaction method for Plum pox potyvirus detection. Journal of Virological Methods 39: 27-37.
  36. Wetzel, T., Candresse, T., Ravelonandro, M., and Dunez, J. 1991. A polymerase chain reaction adapted to Plum pox potyvirus detection. Journal of Virological Methods 33: 355-365.

If you are unable to find a reference, contact See the CAPS Pest Datasheet for all references.