Bacterial wilt; Southern bacterial wilt - Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2
Effective: April 6, 2018
Taxonomic Position: Burkholderiales : Ralstoniaceae
Pest Type: Bacteria
This pest is a member of the following surveys: Solanaceous Hosts
These Approved Methods are appropriate for: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015
Pest Information
Hosts Identified in the CAPS Host Matrix:
Pest is vectored by:

Approved Method(s)
Method Detail NAPIS Survey Method
Visual Collect symptomatic host tissue. 3031 - General Visual Observation
Method Notes:

Survey Recommendations
The following are recommendations for executing the survey using the approved methods for pest surveillance. The recommendations are developed through literature review and consultation with subject matter experts.
Key Diagnostic or Identification

Approved Method(s)
In Progress / Literature-based Diagnostics:
Mistaken Identities:
  1. Caruso, P., Bertolini, E., Cambra, M., and Lopez, M.M. 2003. A new and sensitive co-operational polymerase chain reaction (Co-PCR) for a rapid detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in water. J. Microbiol. Methods 55: 257-272.
  2. Cooke, D., and Sequeira, L. 1991. The use of subtractive hybridization to obtain a DNA probe specific for Pseudomonas solanacearum race 3. Mol. Gen. Genet. 227: 401-410.
  3. Dittanpongpitch, V., and Surat, S. 2003. Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in soil and weeds from commercial tomato fields using immunocapture and polymerase chain reaction. J. Phytopathology 151: 239-246.
  4. Fegan, M., Holoway, G., Hayward, A.C., and Timmis, J. 1998a. Development of a diagnostic test based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify strains of R. solanacearum exhibiting the biovar 2 genotype. In: Bacterial Wilt Disease: Molecular and Ecological Aspects. P. Prior, C. Allen, and J. Elphinstone (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Pp. 34-43.
  5. Fegan, M., Taghavi, M., Sly, L. I., and Hayward, A. C. 1998b. Phylogeny, diversity, and molecular diagnostics of Ralstonia solanacearum. In: Bacterial Wilt Diseases: Molecular and Ecological Aspects. P. Prior, C. Allen, and J. Elphinstone, eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Pages 19-33.
  6. Glick, D.L., Coffey, C.M., and Sulzinski, M.A. 2002. Simultaneous PCR detection of two major bacterial pathogens of geranium. J. Phytopathol. 159: 54-59.
  7. Kubota, R., Vine, B.G., Alvarez, A.M., and Jenkins, D.M. 2008. Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Phytopathology 98: 1045-1051.
  8. Marco-Noales, E., Bertolini, E., Morente, C., and Lopez, M.M. 2008. Integrated approach to detection of nonculturable cells of Ralstonia solanacearum in asymptomatic Pelargonium spp. cuttings. Phytopathology 98: 949-955.
  9. Opina, N., Tavner, F., Holloway, G., Wang, J.-F., Li, T.-H., Maghirang, R., Fegan, M., Hayward, A.C., Krishnapillai, V., Hong, W.F., Holloway, B.W., and Timmis, J.N. 1997. A novel method for development of species and strain specific DNA probes and PCR primers for identifying Burkholderia solanacearum (formerly Pseudomonas solanacearum). Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 5(1): 19-30.
  10. Ozakman, M., and Schaad, N.W. 2003. A real-time BIO-PCR assay for detection of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2, in asymptomatic potato tubers. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 25: 232-239.
  11. Pastrik, K.H., and Maiss, E. 2000. Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in potato by polymerase chain reaction. J. Phytopathol. 148: 619-626.
  12. Poussier, S., and Luisetti, J. 2000. Specific detection of biovars of Ralstonia solanacearum in plant tissues by nested-PCR-RFLP. European Journal of Plant Pathology 106: 255-265.
  13. Pradhanang, P.M., Elphinistone, J.G., and Fox, R.T.V. 2000. Sensitive detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in soil: a comparison of different detection methods. Plant Pathology 49: 414-422.
  14. Schonfeld, J., Heuer, H., van Elsas, J.D., and Smalla, K. 2003. Specific and sensitive detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in soil on the basis of PCR amplification of flicC fragments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69(12): 7248-7256.
  15. Weller, S.A., Elphinistone, J.G., Smith, N.C., Boonham, N., and Stead, D.E. 2000. Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum strains with a quantitative multiplex, real-time, fluorogenic PCR (TaqMan) assay. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(7): 2853-2858.

If you are unable to find a reference, contact See the CAPS Pest Datasheet for all references.