Apple proliferation - Candidatus Phytoplasma mali 16SrX-A
Effective: April 6, 2018
Taxonomic Position: Acholeplasmatales : Acholeplasmataceae
Pest Type: Phytoplasma
These Approved Methods are appropriate for: 2025, 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015
Pest Information
Hosts Identified in the CAPS Host Matrix:
Pest is vectored by:

Approved Method(s)
Method Detail NAPIS Survey Method
Visual Collect symptomatic plant tissue by visual survey. 3031 - General Visual Observation
Method Notes:

Survey Recommendations
The following are recommendations for executing the survey using the approved methods for pest surveillance. The recommendations are developed through literature review and consultation with subject matter experts.
Key Diagnostic or Identification

Approved Method(s)
Mistaken Identities:
In Progress / Literature-based Diagnostics:
  1. Ahrens, U., and Seemuller, E. 1992. Detection of DNA of plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms by a polymerase chain reaction that amplifies a sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Phytopathology 82(8): 828-832.
  2. Aldaghi, M., Massert, S., Roussel, S., and Jijaki, M.H. 2007. Development of a new probe for specific and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma mali in inoculated apple trees. Annals of Applied Biology 151: 251-258.
  3. Aldaghi, M., Massert, S., Roussel, S., Dutrecq, O., and Jijaki, M.H. 2008. Adaptation of real-time PCR assay for specific detection of apple proliferation phytoplasma. Acta Horticulturae 781: 387-393.
  4. Baric, S., and Dalla-Via, J. 2004. A new approach to apple proliferation detection: a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay. Journal of Microbiological Methods 57: 135-145.
  5. Baric, S., Kerschbamer, C., and Dalla Via, J. 2006. TaqMan real-time PCR versus four conventional PCR assays for detection of apple proliferation phytoplasma. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 24: 169-184.
  6. Brzin, J., Ermacora, P., Osler, R., Loi, N., Ravnikar, M., and Petrovic, N. 2003. Detection of apple proliferation phytoplasma by ELISA and PCR in growing and dormant apple trees. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 110: 476-483.
  7. Deng, S., and Hiruki, C. 1991. Amplification of 16S rRNA from culturable and non-culturable mollicutes. Journal of Microbiological Methods 14: 53-61.
  8. Galetto, L., Bosco, D., and Marzachi, C. 2005. Universal and group-specific real-time PCR diagnosis of flavescence doree (16Sr-V), bois noir (16Sr-Xii) and apple proliferation (16Sr-X) phytoplasmas from field-collected plant hosts and insect vectors. Annals of Applied Biology 147: 191-205.
  9. Gibb, K.S., Constable, F.E., Moran, J.R., and Padovan, A.C. 1999. Phytoplasmas in Australian grapevines - detection, differentiation and associated diseases. Vitis 38(3): 107-114.
  10. Green, M.J., Thompson, D.A., and MacKenzie, D.J. 1999. Easy and efficient DNA extraction from woody plants for detection of phytoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction. Plant Disease 83: 482-485.
  11. Gundersen, D.E., and Lee, I.-M. 1996. Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested-PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 35: 144-151.
  12. Jarausch, W., Peccerella, T., Schwind, N., Jarausch, B., and Krezal, G. 2004. Establishment of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for quantification of apple proliferation phytoplasmas in plants and insects. Acta Hortic. 657: 415-420.
  13. Lee, I.M., Bertaccini, A., Vibio, M., and Gunderson, D.E. 1995. Detection of multiple phytoplasmas in perennial fruit trees with decline symptoms in Italy. Phytopathology 85: 728-735.
  14. Lee, I.M., Hammond, R.W., Davis, R.E., and Gundersen, D.E. 1993. Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology 83(8): 834-842.
  15. Loi, N., Ermacora, P., Carraro, L., Osler, R., and Chen, T.A. 2002. Production of monoclonal antibodies against apple proliferation phytoplasma and their use in serological detection. European Journal of Plant Pathology 108: 81-86.
  16. Lorenz, K.-H., Schneider, B., Ahrens, U., and Seemuller, E. 1995. Detection of apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas by PCR amplification or ribosomal and nonribosomal DNA. Phytopathology 85: 771-776.
  17. Rajan, J., and Clark, M.F. 1995. Detection of apple proliferation and other MLOs by immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR). Acta Hortic. 386: 511-514.
  18. Seemuller, E., and Schneider, B. 2004. Candidatus Phytoplasma mali, Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri, and Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline, and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54: 1217-1226.
  19. Smart, C.D., Schneider, B., Blomquist, C.L., Guerra, L.J., Harrison, N.A., Ahrens, U., Lorenz, K.H., Seemuller, E., and Kirkpatrick, B.C. 1996. Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62(8): 2988-2993.
  20. Torres, E., Bertolini, E., Cambra, M., Monton, C., and Martin, M.P. 2005. Real-time PCR for simultaneous and quantitative detection of quarantine phytoplasmas from the apple proliferation (16SrX) group. Molecular and Cellular Probes 19: 334-340.

If you are unable to find a reference, contact See the CAPS Pest Datasheet for all references.