Bacterial leaf streak - Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola
Effective: August 11, 2011
Taxonomic Position: Xanthomonadales : Xanthomonadaceae
Pest Type: Bacteria
These Approved Methods are appropriate for: 2025, 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012
Pest Information
Hosts Identified in the CAPS Host Matrix:
Pest is vectored by:

Approved Method(s)
Method Detail NAPIS Survey Method
Visual Collect symptomatic leaf samples. For a preliminary indications of seed infection, look for bacterial streaming (Singh and Rao, 1977). 3031 - General Visual Observation

Survey Recommendations
The following are recommendations for executing the survey using the approved methods for pest surveillance. The recommendations are developed through literature review and consultation with subject matter experts.
Key Diagnostic or Identification

Approved Method(s)
Mistaken Identities:
In Progress / Literature-based Diagnostics:
  1. Agarwal, P.C., Mortensen, C.N., and Mathur, S.B. 1989. Seedborne disease and seed health testing of rice. Technical Bulletin No. 3/Phytopathological Papers No. 30. Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries and CAB International Mycological Institute.
  2. Alvarez, A.M., Benedict, A.A., and Mizumoto, C.Y. 1985. Identification of xanthomonads and grouping of strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris with monoclonal antibodies. Phytopathology 75: 722-728.
  3. Benedict, A.A., Alvarez, A.M., Berestecky, J., Imanaka, W., Mizumoto, C.Y., Pollard, L.W., Mew, T.W., and Gonzalez, C.F. 1989. Pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies for Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae and for Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzicola. Phytopathology 79: 322-328.
  4. Cottyn, B., Cerez, M.T., and Mew, T.W. 1994b. Chapter 7: Bacteria. In: A Manual of Seed Health Testing. T.W. Mew and J.K. Mistra (Eds.). pp. 322-328. IRRI, Manila.
  5. EPPO. 2007. Xanthomonas oryzae: Diagnostics. Volume 37 (3), pages 543-553.
  6. Gnanamanickam, S.S., Shigaki, T., Medalla, E.S., Mew, T.W., and Alvarez, A.M. 1994. Problems in detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice seed and potential for improvement using monoclonal antibodies. Plant Disease 78: 173-178.
  7. Kang, M.J., Shim, J.K., Cho, M.S., Seol, Y.J., Hahn, J.H., Hwang, D.J., and Park, D.S. 2008. Specific detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola in infected rice plant by use of PCR assay targeting a membrane fusion protein gene. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 18(9): 1492-1495.
  8. Kauffman, H.E., Reddy, A.P.K., Hsieh, S.P.Y., and Merca, S.D. 1973. An improved technique for evaluating resistance in rice varieties to Xanthomonas oryzae. Plant Disease Reporter 57: 537-541.
  9. Lang, J.M., Hamilton, J.P., Diaz, M.G.Z., Van Sluys, M.A., Burgos, M.R.G., Vera Cruz, C.M., Buell, C.R. Tisserat, N.A., and Leach, J.E. 2010. Genomics-based diagnostic marker development for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Plant Disease 94: 311-319.
  10. Leach, J.F., White, F.F., Rhoads, M.L., and Leung, H. 1990. Repetitive DNA sequence differentiates Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae from other pathovars of X. campestris. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 3(4): 238-246.
  11. Liao, X., Zhu, S., Zhao, W., Luo, K., and Qi, Y. 2003. Detection and identification of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola by real-time fluorescent PCR. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 43(5): 626-634. English Abstr.
  12. Mew, T.W., and Misra, J.K. 1994. A Manual of Rice Seed Health Testing. IRRI. Manila.
  13. Ming, D., Ye, H.Z., Schaad, N.W., and Roth, D.A. 1991. Selective recovery of Xanthomonas spp. from rice seed. Phytopathology 81(11): 1358-1363.
  14. Nino-Liu D.O., Ronald P.C., and Bogdanove A.J. 2005. A Simple Method of Mass Inoculation of Rice Effective for Both Pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae, and the Construction of Comparable Sets of Host cDNA Libraries Spanning Early Stages of Bacterial Leaf Blight and Bacterial leaf Streak. Journal of Phytopathology 153:500-504.
  15. Sakthivel, N., Mortensen, C.N., and Mathur, S.B. 2001. Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in artificially inoculated and naturally infected rice seeds and plants by molecular techniques. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56: 435-441.
  16. Singh, R.A., and Rao, M.H.S. 1977. A simple technique for detecting Xanthomonas oryzae in rice seeds. Seed Science and Technology 5: 123-127.
  17. Swings, J., Van Den Mooter, M., Vauterin, L., Hoste, B., Gillis, M., and Mew, T.W. et al. 1990. Reclassification of the causal agents of bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae) and bacterial leaf streak (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzicola) of rice as pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae ex Ishiyama 1922) sp. nov., nom. rev. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 40: 301-311.
  18. Xie, G.L., and Mew, T.W. 1998. A leaf inoculation method for detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola from rice seed. Plant Disease:1007-1011.
  19. Zhao, W.J., Zhu, S.F., Liao, X.L., Chen, H.Y., and Tan, T.W. 2007. Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in seeds using a specific Taqman probe. Molecular Biotechnology 36: 119-127.

If you are unable to find a reference, contact See the CAPS Pest Datasheet for all references.